The Yuma, Cocopah and Maricopa Indians

About the year 1760, the Yumas, Cocopahs and Maricopas composed one tribe, known as the Coco Maricopa tribe. They occupied the country about the head of the Gulf of California, and for some distance up the Colorado River. At that time a dispute occurred, and what is now known as the Cocopah tribe split off, …read more

War with Mexico

On the 28th of March, 1846, General Zachary Taylor took up his position on the banks of the Rio Grande opposite Matamoras, and strengthened himself by the erection of fieldworks. Texas, at that time, claimed’ the Rio Grande as the western boundary of the republic, which not only embraced what is now known as Texas, …read more

Trouble with the Apache

Another difficulty arose between the Commissioner and the Apaches upon the killing of an Apache by one of Bartlett’s men, the Apaches contending with forcible logic and conclusive oratory, that the murderer should, then and there, be executed in their presence. Of this occurrence, Commissioner Bartlett gives the following account: “About one o’clock word was …read more

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

“In the name of Almighty God: “The United States of America and the United Mexican States, animated by a sincere desire to put an end to the calamities of the war which unhappily exists between the two Republics, and to establish upon a solid basis relations of peace and friendship, which shall confer reciprocal benefits …read more

Treaty with Mexico

“The treaty was as follows: “Treaty with Mexico. Concluded December 30, 1853; ratifications exchanged June 30, 1851; proclaimed June 30, 1854′. “In the name of Almighty God: “The Republic of Mexico and the United States of America, desiring to remove every cause of disagreement which might interfere in any manner with the better friendship and …read more

Survey for Railroads and Other Purposes

As early as 1850, Thomas H. Benton, Missouri’s great Senator began an agitation in Congress for a Pacific railroad. It was due to him, probably, that Bartlett, in his survey of the Boundary line under the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was instructed to make notes of the country over which he passed with a view …read more

Spanish Explorers and Exploration

In the year 1530, Nunc de Guzman, who was President of New Spain, had in his possession an Indian, a native of the Valley of Oxitipar, who was called Tejo by the Spaniards. This Indian said he was the son of a trader who was dead, and that when he was a boy his father …read more

Early Spanish Explorers and Indians

It is a grave question whether the first entry into Arizona was made by Juan de la Asunsion, or by Estevan, the Negro, the former slave of Dorantes, who was sent forward by Fra Marcos de Niza in advance of his expedition to the Seven Cities of Cibola. Bancroft accords this honor to the Negro …read more

The Santa Fe Trail

The opening of the Santa Fe Trail from Independence, Missouri, to Sant Fe, has such a bearing upon the subsequent explorations in Arizona, that I think it proper to give a short description of what is know as the “Commerce of the Prairies,” over this trail, and the causes which led up to it. The …read more

Spanish Exploration continues in the Territories

The military post established by Melchior Diaz in the Sonora Valley, at or near the Corazones (Ures), having been captured and destroyed by the Indians before Coronado ‘s return, the limits of New Spain remained the same as before his expedition, Culiacan being its farthest northern limit. The discovery of the rich silver mines of …read more