Labors of the California Column
Assembling of Column at Fort Yuma - Its Marches - Arrival at Tucson - Letter of Colonel Carleton - Order for Arrest of Sylvester Mowry - Mowry Held Prisoner at Fort Yuma and His Property Confiscated - Mowry 's Side of the Story - His Release and Restoration of His Property in Valueless Condition - Carleton Places Territory Under Martial Law - Carleton Made Brigadier General - Taxes upon Merchants in Tucson - Fooling the Government Officials - Bill Bowers and His Contract for Barley - Hank 'n' Yank - C. 0. Brown's Contract With Lieut Col. West - Fight With Apaches- Captain T. J. Jeffords - General Carleton 's Report to Adjutant General - Outrages by the Indians.
In relation to the expedition of the California Column up the Gila
River, I quote from the "Record of California Men in the War of the
Rebellion," Adjutant General's Office, 1890:
"The troops composing the column were assembled at Fort Yuma in April, and early in that month information was received at that post that the Confederates, under Hunter, were on their way down the Gila, when a reconnoitering party, under Captain William P. Calloway, consisting of his own Company I, First California Infantry, a detachment of Company A, First California Cavalry, under Lieutenant James Barrett of Company A and E. C. Baldwin of Company D, and a detachment of Company K, First Infantry, under Lieutenant Jeremiah Phelan, with two mountain howitzers, was sent out with orders to proceed along the Overland route as far as Tucson. This command reached the Pima Villages with no other signs of the Confederates than a number of burned haystacks at the different stations. Upon approaching the Picacho, April 15, 1862, the Indian scouts brought information that a detachment of Confederates was in the immediate front. The detachment of cavalry was ordered to make a vide detour, so as to strike them on the flank, while the Captain, with the main party, was to attack them in front. The enemy was not found in the immediate front, but, after travelling several miles, rapid firing was heard in advance, and, arriving upon the spot, it was found that Lieutenant Barrett had located the Rebel pickets, and the first information they had of the Union forces was their charging in among them. Lieutenant Barrett and two men were killed and three men wounded. These were the first California Volunteers killed or wounded during the war. The Rebel loss was two men wounded and three prisoners. The graves of the Union Lieutenant and his men may now be seen within twenty feet of the Southern Pacific Railroad, as it goes through Picacho Pass. The Union forces remained on the ground that night, and. the next morning, the Captain, against the protest of all his officers, ordered his party to fall back. Near Stanwix Station they met the advance of the 'California Column' under Colonel West, when all proceeded to the Pima Villages, where a permanent camp was established, and earthworks thrown up about the flouring mill of Mr. Ammi White, who had been carried away prisoner by Captain Hunter, a few days before. This earthwork was named Fort Barrett, in honor of the young Lieutenant who had been killed in the skirmish at the Picacho. A halt was made here to allow the different detachments of the 'Column' to close up, as not over four companies could move together over the desert on account of the scarcity of water. On the fifteenth of May Colonel West, with the advance detachment, moved out of Fort Barrett for Tucson. They moved up the Gila River to old Fort Breckenridge, near the confluence of the Gila and San Pedro Rivers, where the American flag was again run up on the flagstaff of the Fort, amid the cheers of the men. On the morning of the twentieth, Tucson was occupied, the Confederates having abandoned it on the approach of the 'California Column,' and returned to the Rio Grande."
According to the official communication of Colonel Carleton to the Adjutant General of the United States Army, San Francisco, California, under date of May 25th, from Fort Barrett, Pima Villages, the advance guard of the California Column, under Lieutenant Colonel Joseph R. West, First Infantry, California Volunteers, took possession of Tucson, Arizona, on the 20th of that month, without firing a shot. The report says that all the Secession troops who were in the Territory, and all the Secessionists, had fled, the troops to the Rio Grande, the citizens to Sonora. That the arrival of the Union troops was hailed with joy, and that the troops would, doubtless, be able to get some forage, flour and beef, and, perhaps, some sugar from Sonora.
The next official communication from Colonel Carleton, was dated from Tucson, June 10th, 1862. In it he says:
"I am making every endeavor to get supplies together. Meantime, I shall
try to straighten up matters here so that when a man does have his
throat cut, his house robbed, or his field ravaged, he may at least have
the consolation of knowing that there is some law that will reach him
who does the injury. I enclose herewith a paper which seems to touch
this point. I have not called it a proclamation, because, nowadays,
every military commander makes one, and I had hoped to shun, in this
respect, their example. Whatever name the instrument may go by, I hope
the General will see nothing in it that is not just and called for by
the necessities of the case. It already seems to have gratifying
"I shall send to Fort Yuma, for confinement, starting them today, nine of the cutthroats, gamblers, and loafers who have infested this town to the great bodily fear of all good citizens. Nearly every one, I believe, has either killed his man, or been engaged in helping to kill him. I shall send on a detailed account of the causes which justify their arrest and removal from the territory. They should be held prisoners at Alcatraz until the end of the war. If discharged at Fort Yuma, they will get back here again and give trouble.
"I have sent to arrest Mr. Sylvester Mowry, and all the people at his mine. It is possible I shall be obliged to hold Mr. Mowry as a prisoner. That he has been guilty of overt as well as covert acts of treason, there is hardly a doubt. I consider his presence in this territory as dangerous to its peace and prosperity. Enclosed are copies of certain charges against him, and of the instructions for his arrest.
"In a few days I will inform the General of my fortune and prospects in getting supplies from Sonora."
The charges which caused the arrest of Mr. Mowry were made by one T. Scheuner, metallurgist at the Mowry Silver Mine, and were conveyed to General Carleton in a letter under date of May 11th, 1862.
The order for Mowry 's arrest is as follows:
Headquarters Column from California,
Tucson, June 8, 1862.
"Colonel: The Colonel commanding confides to your charge the duty of arresting and conveying to this post, as a prisoner, one Sylvester Mowry, now at the Patagonia Mines, some ninety miles distant from here near the Sonora line.
"Charges of a treasonable complicity with Rebels have been preferred against Mowry, and there is little doubt but what he has rendered assistance and furnished supplies to their forces. From the moment that he falls into your hands, you will interdict all communications by word or sign between him and his people, except such as you shall personally supervise.
"You will seize all his personal papers and any documents of a political character that you may find on the premises and bring them to these headquarters.
"You will also take into custody and bring as prisoners to this post all persons whom you find at the Patagonia Mines, using such discretion in your control of them as will prevent their doing anything to the prejudice of your movements or to the United States Government.
"You will see that your prisoners have supplies for the road; and you may, if necessary, use any subsistence that falls into your hands at the mines.
"You must bring every man that you arrest to this post without fail. It is reported that a respectable German w T as murdered quite recently at the Patagonia Mines. You will make careful inquiry into this matter and report the facts.
"In order to protect the interests of the owners of the Patagonia Mines, on taking possession of the same, you will make a minute inventory of all the movable property comprising mining implements and machinery, cattle, horses, arms, provisions, and any other articles appertaining to the mines. This inventory must be verified and signed in duplicate by yourself and by the two officers next in rank of your command. One copy of this inventory you will leave with the commanding officer of the guard that you place in charge of the mine, who will be held responsible for the safe keeping and preservation of the property named upon it. You will bring all supplies, arms and ammunition found at the mine to the post, using of either such as you may need for your command.
"As soon as you have complied with the foregoing instructions, you will leave such guard in charge of the mine and property as you may deem adequate for security. Captain Willis and his twenty-five infantrymen will perhaps be sufficient, but of this you must be the judge. Then return with the remainder of your command to this post. Should an opportunity offer in the meantime, you will report progress to these headquarters. At the Patagonia Mine and in the vicinity and en route thereto, you will ascertain and report upon the facilities available for subsisting troops and foraging animals.
"The force entrusted to your command for the execution of the foregoing duties, comprises sixty of the First Cavalry, California Volunteers, Captain Fritz commanding, and twenty-five of the First Infantry, California Volunteers, Captain Willis; the latter officer with twelve men you will find in advance at Brevoort's Ranch.
"The cavalry have rations to the twentieth, the infantry to the thirtieth instant.
"The whole command is supplied with fifty rounds of ammunition per man.
"Enclosed herewith is an extract from a letter which should claim your careful consideration.
"I have the honor to be, very respectfully,
Your obedient servant,
Ben C. Cutler, "First Lieutenant, First Infantry, California Volunteers Acting Asst. Adjutant General.
"Lieut. Col. Edward E. Eyre, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, Tucson."
And, on June 16th, 1862, the Colonel commanding issued the following:
Special Orders. No. 17
Tucson, Arizona, June 16, 1862.
Headquarters Column from California.
1. A Board of Officers, to consist of Lieut Col. Joseph R. West, First Infantry, California Volunteers, and Captain Nicholas S. Davis, First Infantry, California Volunteers, will assemble at this post at 4 p. m. today, or as soon thereafter as practicable, to investigate certain charges and facts tending to show that Mr. Sylvester Mowry, of the Patagonia Mines, in this territory, is an enemy to the Government of the United States, and that he has been in treasonable correspondence and collusion with well known Secessionists, and has offered them aid and comfort when they were known publicly to be enemies of the legally constituted authority and Government of the United States.
"The Board will be duly sworn to the faithful performance of its duty, and will examine witnesses on oath, and will examine and make certified extracts from such documents as may be laid before them, which may have immediate or important bearing on these points, and the Board will report, in writing and in full, the evidence it receives on all these matters, and its opinions whether or not there are sufficient grounds to restrain of his liberty and bring to trial before a Military Commission, the said Mr. Sylvester Mowry.
2. The Board will also inquire into the truth of a report that a respectable German citizen was recently murdered at or near Patagonia Mines, in this Territory, and report in writing the evidence in the case and their opinion, in the event they find the report to be true, as to who are probably the guilty parties.
"The record of this investigation will be made up separately from that ordered in the first paragraph hereof.
3. Second Lieut. Erastus W. Wood, First Infantry, California Volunteers, is appointed Secretary of the Board, and will be duly sworn by the President thereof to a faithful discharge of his duties as such.
"By order of Colonel Carleton.
Ben C. Cutler, First Lieut. First Infantry, Cal. Vols. A. A. A. Gen'l."
On the 16th of July, 1862, the Board so appointed to investigate the acts of Mr. Mowry, reported as follows:
"Headquarters Column from California.
Tucson, Ariz., July 16, 1862.
"The Board having examined the foregoing personal testimony and documentary evidence, as directed by Special Orders No. 17, and by the letters of the Colonel commanding the Column from California to the President of this Board, which said order and letters are copied on and made part of these records, are of opinion that said Sylvester Mowry is an enemy to the Government of the United States, and that he has been in treasonable correspondence and collusion with well known Secessionists, and has offered them aid and comfort when they were known publicly to be enemies to the legally constituted authority and Government of the United States, and that there are sufficient grounds to restrain the said Sylvester Mowry of his liberty, and bring him to trial before a Military Commission.
J. R. West, Lieutenant Colonel, First Infantry, California Volunteers,
Charles A. Smith, Captain, Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers.
Nicholas S. Davis, Captain, First Infantry, California Volunteers.
Erastus W. Wood, Second Lieutenant, First Infantry, California Volunteers, Secretary."
Sylvester Mowry was held a prisoner at Fort Yuma for nearly six months,
and was never brought to trial. Mowry himself declares that it was a
matter of personal spite on the part of Colonel Carleton. He says:
"In June, 1862, the proprietor of the Mowry Silver Mines was seized by a large armed force, under the orders of General J. H. Carleton, while in the legitimate pursuit of his business, and retained as a political prisoner for nearly six months. This seizure was made upon a false, ridiculous and malicious charge. After nearly six months' close confinement, the writer was discharged, "there being no evidence" (in the opinion of the court which tried his case) 'either oral or documentary against him;' a charming commentary upon the constitutional guarantee to every citizen of 'life, property, and the pursuit of happiness. ' The mines were placed in the hands of a dishonest and incompetent man as government receiver, who did much damage, caused great loss, and finally, on being obliged to give up his place, made away with nearly all the goods, wood, coal, arms and stores at the mines. No improvements were made during this person's administration, and the property now being held by the Federal Government, under pretense of the Confiscation Act, none can be made by the owner until his property is restored to his possession. This will undoubtedly be done as soon as the authorities at Washington can be heard from, as the seizure was illegal, and dictated by personal hostility on the part of General Carleton."
Sufficient to say that after being held a prisoner at Fort Yuma for a period of nearly six months, and his property being confiscated, Mowry was released, and afterwards his property was restored to him, but in a condition that left it valueless as far as he was concerned. He was never afterwards able to refinance it.
The following is a copy of an order by Colonel Carleton organizing the Territory of Arizona, and placing it under martial law:" To all whom it may concern:
"The Congress of the United States has set apart a portion of New Mexico, and organized it into a Territory complete by itself.
"This is known as the Territory of Arizona. It comprises within its limits all the country eastward from the Colorado River, which is now occupied by the forces of the United States, known as the 'Column from California.' And as the flag of the United States shall be carried by this Column still further eastward, these limits will extend in that direction until they reach the furthest geographical boundary of this Territory.
"Now, in the present chaotic state in which Arizona is found to be, with no civil officers to administer the laws, indeed, with an utter absence of all civil authority, and with no security of life and property within its borders, it becomes the duty of the undersigned to represent the authority of the United States over the people of Arizona, as well as over all those who compose, or are connected with, the Column from California.
"Thus, by virtue of his office as Military Commander of the United States forces now here, and to meet the fact that wherever within our boundaries our colors fly, there the Sovereign power of our country must at once be acknowledged and law and order at once prevail, the undersigned as a Military Governor assumes control of this Territory until such time as the President of the United States shall otherwise direct.
"Thus also it is hereby declared that until Civil officers shall be sent by the Government to organize the civil Courts for the administration of justice, the Territory of Arizona is hereby placed under martial law.
"Trials for capital offenses shall be held by a Military Commission, to be composed of not more than thirteen nor less than nine commissioned officers.
"The rules of evidence shall be those customary in practice under the common law.
"The trials shall be public, and shall be trials of record; and the mode of procedure shall be strictly in accordance with that of Courts martial in the Army of the United States.
"Unless the public safety absolutely requires it, no execution shall follow conviction unless the orders in the case by the President shall be known.
"Trials for minor offenses shall be held under the same rules, except that for these a Commission of not more than five nor less than three commissioned officers may sit, and a vote of the majority shall determine the issue. In these cases the orders of the officer organizing the Commission shall be final.
"All matters relating to rights in property and lands which may be in dispute, shall be determined for the time being by a Military Commission, to be composed of not more than five or less than three commissioned officers. Of course, appeals from the decisions of such Commissions can be taken to the civil Courts when once the latter have been established.
"There are certain fundamental rules for the government of the people of this Territory, which shall be rigidly enforced;
"No man who has arrived at lawful age shall be permitted to reside within this Territory who does not, without delay, subscribe to the oath of allegiance to the United States.
''No words or acts calculated to impair that veneration which all good patriots should feel for our country and Government will be tolerated within this Territory or go unpunished, if sufficient proof be had of them.
"No man who does not pursue some lawful calling, or have some legitimate means of support, shall be permitted to remain in the Territory.
"Having no thought or motive in all this but the good of the people, and aiming only to do right, the undersigned confidently hopes and expects in all he does to further these ends to have the hearty cooperation of every good citizen and soldier in Arizona.
''All this is to go into effect from and after this date, and will continue in force unless disapproved or modified by General George Wright, United States Army, commanding, the Department of the Pacific, under whose orders the Column from California has taken the field.
"Done at headquarters of the Column from California, in Tucson, Ariz., this eighth day of June, A. D. 1862.
James H. Carleton, Colonel First California Volunteers, Major U.S. Sixth Cavalry."
This instrument or proclamation was approved by General Wright, commanding the Department of the Pacific in words following:
"Headquarters Department of the Pacific
San Francisco, June 28, 1862.
"The proclamation of Col. James H. Carleton, now Brigadier General of Volunteers, U. S. Army, dated at his headquarters in Tucson, Territory of Arizona, June 8, 1862, is hereby approved and confirmed, and will remain in full force until the civil authority shall be reestablished in the Territory.
G. Wright, Brigadier General U. S. Army, Commanding
Colonel Carleton was' made a Brigadier General on April 28th, 1862, and
his commission reached him in June of that year. Upon declaring himself
Military Governor of Arizona, he appointed assistant adjutant general
Benj. Clark Cutler, to be Secretary of the Territory of Arizona "while
the said Territory remains under martial law, or until the time his
successor shall be appointed to take his place."
His duties were to record and preserve all the acts and proceedings of the Governor in the Executive Department, and to transmit an authentic copy of these acts and proceedings through the General commanding the Department of the Pacific, to the President of the United States on the last day of every month. The Secretary of State was also empowered to administer oaths.
This proclamation was dated from Tucson, June 11, 1862. On the same date General Carleton issued the following proclamation:
Executive Department, Territory of Arizona.
Tucson, Ariz., June 11, 1862
To All Whom It may Concern:
"Be it known, that by virtue of the authority vested in myself as Military Governor of Arizona, I hereby empower the following officers with the right to administer oaths within this Territory while it shall remain under martial law; that is to say:
"Lieut. Col. Joseph E. West, First Infantry, Cal. Vols.;
Lieut. Col. Edward E. Eyre, First Cavalry, Cal. Vols.;
Maj. Edwin A. Rigg, First Infantry, Cal. Vols.;
Maj. Theodore A. Coult, Fifth Infantry, Cal. Vols.;
Maj. David Ferguson, First Cavalry, Cal. Vols.;
Capt. Treadwell Moore, Assistant Quartermaster, U. S. Army,
also the Presidents and Judge Advocates of Military Commissions, when such commissions are in session.
James H. Carleton, Colonel First Cal. Vols., Major U. S. Sixth Cavalry.
"By the Governor. Benj. C. Cutler, Acting Asst. Adj. Genl. Military Secretary of State." And, on the following day he issued the following:
"Executive Department, Ariz. Territory.
Tucson, June 12, 1862.
To All Whom It may Concern: "Be it known:
I. That from and after this date a monthly tax of five ($5) dollars for license to trade shall be levied on all merchants in Tucson, Arizona, including those who shall traffic within a mile in every direction from its suburbs, whose monthly sales of merchandise amount to five hundred ($500) dollars, or under, and an additional tax of one ($1) dollar per month for each additional monthly sale of one hundred dollars.
II. That every keeper of a gambling house within the aforesaid limits shall pay a tax of one hundred ($100) dollars per month for each and every table in said house where on any banking game is played.
III. That every keeper of a bar, where wines, spirituous or malt liquors are to be sold, shall pay a tax of one hundred ($100) dollars per month to keep said bar.
IV. All keepers of gambling houses, for the nonpayment of license for gambling tables, will be fined fifty ($50) dollars for the first offense; for the second offense he shall have his money, implements, tools, etc., seized and the same shall be confiscated, and he shall pay a fine of one hundred ($100) dollars, and be forbidden to again gamble in this Territory.
V. Any person who, after this date, shall sell, without a license, any intoxicating liquors or drinks, shall be fined fifty ($50) dollars for the first offense; for the second offense he shall pay a fine of one hundred ($100) dollars, and forfeit all the liquors in his possession.
VI. The commanding officer of Tucson is hereby empowered to grant licenses under these rules, and collect all taxes, fines and forfeitures. The moneys thus collected shall be turned over to the Medical Director, who shall receipt for the same and add it to the Hospital Fund, to be used exclusively for the benefit of the sick and wounded soldiers belonging to the Column from California until further orders.
VII. All sales made by the Government of the United States shall be exempt from taxation, and no license is necessary for the sale of forage, subsistence stores, fruits or vegetables.
"By order of Colonel Carleton.
Ben C. Cutler, Act. Asst. Adj. Genl. Military Secretary of State."
Times were evidently booming among speculators and adventurers at Tucson
following the advent of the California Column. As an evidence of this, I
quote the following from Hilzinger's ''Treasure Land":
"Money was easily made when the California volunteers came to Tucson in 1863. Barley brought ten cents a pound and was hard to get at any price.
"The quartermaster's office used to be about where the New Orndorff Hotel now stands, and the scales stood just outside.
"On one occasion, Bill Bowers learned that the quartermaster was short on barley, and that Nick Chambers had all there was in town, about a wagon load. Billy hunted up the quartermaster and contracted to deliver ten loads at a high figure, the grain to be weighed on the scales and then delivered at the corral half a mile away. Being an ignorant frontiersman, he didn't want any vouchers or other red tape about the business, and insisted upon receiving cash for each load as it was weighed.
"Having arranged these preliminaries to his satisfaction he began business by borrowing a team from Nick Chambers and the use of his load of barley. Loading it on the quartermaster's scales, he received its value and reloaded it again. He ought to have taken it to the corral according to contract, but seeing that it was only borrowed, he didn't feel that it was right to do this, besides a little more weighing wouldn't hurt it in the least, so making a detour, he returned it to the scales and received another payment for it. He was again on the horns of a dilemma. If he took the grain to the corral, he was disposing of property which didn't belong to him, and if, on the other hand, he failed to deliver ten loads to the Government, he violated his contract. Billy solved the problem by weighing the barley ten times, and then returning it to its owner, a trifle the worse for handling, but still merchantable. Half an hour afterwards he was on the road to Tubac, and has not been heard of since.
"Nick Chambers swore that he was not privy to the scheme, and believed the barley had been borrowed just to give the animals a smell of decent feed, but as he was reputed to be a shrewd trader, the popular verdict was against him.
"Hank and Yank, as well as others, coined money on hay contracts. If they didn't get two or three heavy weight teamsters on the scales for good measure it was because the scales were fixed otherwise. Up at a camp near Maricopa they built a stone corral with the rocks that came in the hay."
(The real names of Hank 'n' Yank were Hank Hewitt and John Bartlett.)
At the time of the occupation of Tucson by the California Column under Lieutenant Colonel J. R. West, who was appointed the military commander of that town, Charles O. Brown, who afterwards became identified with the early history of Arizona, was running a gambling house and saloon in Tucson. He made the following statement to the writer:
"That he received notice from Colonel West, asking him to meet him at a
certain place just outside of the town walls for a conference. Brown
feared at the start that West intended to arrest him, but the Colonel
asked him why he did not leave the Territory with the Confederates when
they left. Brown's reply was that he was born in New York; that lie was
in Tucson before they came, and he concluded the best thing for him to
do was to remain there after they had left. "After some other
preliminary talk, the Colonel asked him if he would like to have the
exclusive privilege of selling liquor and running a gambling hall in
Tucson. Brown said he would. The Colonel then said he would give it to
him if he would pay him five hundred dollars a month for the privilege,
which Brown consented to do. The only condition placed upon him was that
he should not sell liquor to drunken soldiers; that when they came under
its influence, to allow them to have no more. Brown said that he made a
great deal of money through this privilege; that his saloon was crowded
all the time, and that he had a little back room where the officers
congregated and where he gave them the best that he could find in the
way of alcoholic stimulants, which kept them all in line.
The only authority for this statement is that made by Brown himself to the writer. He further said that after the withdrawal of the main body of troops from Tucson and its neighborhood into New Mexico, he followed them to Mesilla, where he continued the business. After the disbanding of the California Column, Brown returned to Tucson and settled permanently.
There was some difficulty in establishing communication between the California Column and General Canby, who was in command of the Federal forces in New Mexico. On the 15th of June, 1862, General Carleton sent from Tucson an expressman, John Jones, and Sergeant Wheeling, of Company F, First Infantry, California Volunteers, and a Mexican guide named Chavez, with communications for General Canby. On the 18th these men were attacked by a party of Apaches. Sergeant Wheeling and the guide, Chavez, were killed, and Jones made a miraculous escape, succeeded in getting through the Indians, and, after a hot pursuit on their part, reached the Rio Grande at a point known as Picacho, six miles above Mesilla, where he was taken prisoner by the Secessionists, who brought him before Colonel Steele who examined him, took his dispatches and threw him in jail. He managed, however, to get word to General Canby that he was there, and that the Column from California was really coming, an achievement which was considered absolutely impracticable, and this was the first intimation given either to Federal or Confederate troops that the advance of the California Column was then at Tucson. General Carleton says: ''As soon as Steele ascertained this matter as a fact, hurried preparations were made to abandon the country. Meantime General Canby had sent a large force to Fort Craig to move on Mesilla as soon as transportation could be provided."
About this time Captain T. J. Jeffords was sent from Mesilla, New Mexico, by General Canby, as a bearer of dispatches to General Carleton, which he delivered in person.
There were several battles between the Federal and Confederate forces in New Mexico before the retirement of the former into Texas, which, however, have no part in this history.
In an official communication to the Adjutant General in San Francisco, under date of September 20th, 1862, from Santa Fe. New Mexico, General Carleton, who had succeeded General Canby in command in New Mexico and Arizona, says:
"I left Tucson myself on the twenty third of July, passed Colonel West with most of the troops, encamped on the San Pedro on the twenty-fourth, and led the advance of the Column from that point to Las Cruces, New Mexico, with one company of infantry and two of cavalry. From the hostile attitude of the Chiricahuas, I found it indispensably necessary to establish a post in what is known as Apache Pass; it is known as Fort Bowie, and garrisoned by one hundred rank and file of the Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers, and thirteen rank and file of Company A, First Cavalry, California Volunteers; this post commands the water in the pass. Around this water the Indians have been in the habit of lying in ambush, and shooting the troops and travellers as they came to drink. In this way they killed three of Lieutenant Colonel Eyre's command, and in attempting to keep Captain Robert's company, First Infantry, California Volunteers, away from the spring, a fight ensued, in which Captain Roberts had two men killed and two wounded. Captain Roberts reports that the Indians lost ten killed. In this affair, the men of Captain Roberts are reported as behaving with great gallantry.
"Two miles beyond Apache Pass, I found the remains of nine white men, who had been murdered by the Indians. They were a party travelling from the Pinos Alto Mines to California; one of them had been burned at the stake. We saw the charred bones, and the burnt ends of the rope by which he had been tied. The remains of seven of these men were buried on the spot. From the Rio de Sauz to Ojo de la Vaca there was a great dearth of water."
The California Column had many rights and skirmishes with the hostile Indians in their march through Arizona and New Mexico, a few of which I note.
Notes About Book:
Source: History Of Arizona Volume 2, By Thomas Edwin Farish, 1915, Printed and Published by Direction of the Second Legislature of the State of Arizona, A. D.
Notes about Online Publication: This manuscript has been ocr'd and heavily edited. Many of the Native American words have been reproduced as clearly as online publication will allow us, but not all are exactly the way they were in the original work. The structure of this manuscript has been changed to allow better online presentation.