On the morning of September 27th, 1861, a force of over two hundred warriors attacked the mining village of Pinos Altos, but, fortunately for the people, Captain Martin had arrived the night before with a detachment of Arizona Guards, a volunteer organization, and after several hours hard fighting, the Indians were driven off with considerable loss. Soon after one hundred and fifty warriors attacked a large wagon train, one day out from Pinos Altos, and besieged it for fourteen hours. The train escaped destruction by the timely arrival of the Arizona Guards, who escorted it to the Mimbres River.
The situation of the settlers in New Mexico was about as bad as it was in Arizona, but relief was at hand. The Colorado Volunteers marched down from the north, turned back the Texans, and joined Canby in driving them from the Rio Grande. At the same time General Carleton with his Column of Californians, was advancing by way of Fort Yuma, driving all hostiles before him, and reopening the old Butterfield route of communication to the coast.
Mangus Colorado, although in fact his band was domiciled in New Mexico, and not in Arizona, yet on account of the close relations existing between him and Cochise, the chief of the Chiricahuas, his history becomes, in a way, identified with that of the Indian fights in Arizona. ‘Mangus never forgave the whipping he received at the hands of the miners of the Santa Rita Mines, and was, thereafter, the implacable foe of the whites. The details of this whipping are given by Cremony as follows:
“My readers will bear in mind the place described as Santa Rita del Cobre, where the Boundary Commission remained for several months, where Inez Gonzales and the two Mexican boys were rescued from captivity, where Delgadito made his attack upon Mr. Hay, and where he got handsomely seamed by Wells. The gold mines worked by Mr. Hay at that period, twelve years prior, had proved to be very rich, and attracted many bold adventurers, among whom were a number of celebrated Indian fighters, who had passed years upon our frontiers, and were universal^ dreaded by all the wild Indian tribes of Arizona and New Mexico. In a short time the mining population at that point amounted to something like two hundred, of whom one hundred and fifty were well armed, fearless and experienced men. The presence of such a party was far from pleasing to Mangus Colorado and his band, as they claimed exclusive proprietorship to that whole region, which was their main fastness. They also regarded the miners as the legitimate successors of the Boundary Commission, with whom they had parted in deadly enmity after a short season of simulated friendship. Mangus made many skillful efforts to dislodge the miners, and divert their attention from the Copper Mines, but without effect. He privately visited some of the more prominent among them, and professing the most disinterested friendship, offered to show them where gold was far more abundant and could be obtained with less labor, accompanying his promises with something like the following style of inducement:
“You good man. You stay here long time and never hurt Apache. You want the “yellow iron;” I know where plenty is. Suppose you go with me, I show you; but tell no one else. Mangus your friend, he want to do you good. You like “yellow iron” – good! Me no want “yellow iron.” Him no good for me – can no eat, can no drink, can no keepee out cold. Come, I show you.’
“For a while each person so approached kept this offer to himself, but after a time they began to compare notes, and found that Mangus had made a like promise to each, under the ban of secrecy and the pretense of exclusive personal friendship. Those who at first believed the old rascal, at once comprehended that it was a trap set to separate and sacrifice the bolder and leading men by gaining their confidence and killing them in detail, while their fates would remain unknown to those left behind. The next time, after this eclair cissement, that Mangus visited that camp, he was tied to a tree and administered a dose of ‘strap oil,’ well applied by lusty arms. His vengeance was more keenly aroused by this deserved treatment, and from that time forth every sort of annoyance was put into operation against the miners. They were shot at from the cover of trees and rocks, their cattle and horses were driven off, their supply trains robbed and destroyed and themselves reduced to want. But Mangus desired their utter extirpation. He wanted their blood; he was anxious for their annihilation, and feeling himself unable to cope with them single handed, he dispatched emissaries to Cheis (Cochise), the most famed warrior of the Chiricahua tribe, to come and help him oust the Americans.”
Cochise agreed to assist him, provided Mangus would help him in dislodging the Americans from the Apache Pass and Fort Bowie. At Apache Pass was fought a great battle with their united forces.
While they were occupying Apache Pass awaiting the arrival of the Americans, they descried a small band of Americans approaching from the east, across the wide plains intervening between that place and the Cienega, and determined to cut it off. In the newcomers they recognized a small but well armed party of hardy and experienced miners from the Santa Rita del Cobre, and knew that such men were always on their guard and prepared to defend their lives with the greatest courage and determination. They knew also that they would be on the qui vive after having entered the pass and that any attack upon them would probably result in the loss of several of their warriors. Two miles east of the pass, in the clear and unobstructed plain, was a gully, formed by the washing of rains through a porous and yielding soil. It was six or eight 3^ards wide, and could not be seen from horseback until the rider was within fifty yards of the spot. A large body of the Apaches hid themselves in this gully, believing that the travelers would be somewhat off their guard while crossing the open plain, apparently without a place of concealment, and there they awaited the approach of their victims. The ambuscade was skillfully laid and eminently successful. The miners rode forward with their rifles resting in the slings across their saddle bows, their pistols in scabbards, and their whole attention absorbed on the pass they were about to enter. When within forty yards of the gully a simultaneous fire was opened upon them by the concealed Indians which killed one half of their number outright and sent the remainder wounded and panic stricken to seek safety in flight. They were pursued and massacred to a man. Their bodies were discovered by the Americans after the battle of Apache Pass, and it was an instructive lesson in Apache character, showing the shrewd calculations made by these people when determined to effect a desired result. It was subsequently learned that the victims had with them a considerable sum in gold dust, nearly fifty thousand dollars worth, all of which fell into the hands of their slayers, who had become well acquainted with its value.
The battle of Apache Pass and the events leading up to it are fully described in Cremony’s “Life Among the Apaches,” from which I make the following extract:
“In consequence of the report made by Lieut. Col. E. A. Rigg, Gen. Carleton again ordered me in the advance with Capt. Thomas Roberts. Co. E, First California Infantry. Arriving at the San Pedro River, it became necessary to learn whether Dragoon Springs, some twenty-eight miles further on, could supply both companies at a time with water, or whether we would be obliged to break into detachments. Capt. Roberts took the advance with his infantry and three wagons, having also selected seven of my best mounted men to serve as scouts and couriers. I remained behind with fifteen of my cavalry and ten of Roberts’ company, including the detachment left as a garrison at the river, where a tolerable adobe building, erected by the Overland Stage Company, afforded decent shelter and a defensible position.
“The night after Roberts left was one of the most stormy I ever witnessed. The rain descended in floods. Earth and sky appeared thunder riven; blazing lightning leaped from the inky clouds, and absorbed the Cimmerian darkness with their blinding flashes. The San Pedro roared and foamed and the animals quailed and bent before the storm, and all nature seemed convulsed. I was in charge of sixteen wagons with their mules and precious freight, and my chief attention was elicited to secure their safety. Experience had taught me that the Apaches would select exactly such a time to make a bold attempt, and I doubled my sentries. Throwing myself on the earthen floor, in front of a decent fire, without removing my side arms or any portion of my clothing, I endeavored to obtain some repose. About two o’clock A. M., I was aroused by the sergeant of the guard, who informed me that strange lights were visible coming down the hills on the west, north and south sides. A hasty survey showed me four lights, as of large burning brands, on three different sides of the compass, and apparently approaching the station. I felt convinced from this open demonstration that no attack was meditated, for in that case the greatest secrecy and caution would have been observed by the Apaches. Nevertheless, the garrison was summoned and disposed to the best advantage. All fires were extinguished and all lights shrouded from observation. In the course of a few minutes seven or eight more lights made their appearance, and seemed to be carried by persons walking at a rapid pace. Some of them approached within, what I considered, two hundred yards of the station, and at one time I felt greatly inclined to try the effect of a chance shot from my rifle, but gave up the idea from the conviction that no Apache would carry a torch within that distance, and maintain an erect position, while my fire might expose the persons of my men, and draw a more effective return. After an hour and a half of anxious watch, the lights gradually united and faded away toward the east.
“It was not until more than a year had elapsed that I learned the meaning of this occurrence. A celebrated leading man of the Mescalero Apaches, named Gian-nah-tah, or ‘Always Ready,’ gave the desired information, which precisely tallied with succeeding events. He said that, as the Apaches are a dispersed and perpetually wandering race, it is impossible for one detachment to know where others might be at any time, but that when a great body of them was needed for any joint undertaking, they made smoke signals of a certain character by day and signals of fire by night. That, on the occasion of which I write, the nature of the country prohibited fire signals from being seen except from very short distances, and runners were hurried through the districts, bearing torches, which would indicate that the aid of all within sight was required. In fine, it was the ‘ Speed, Malise, Speed’ of the Apaches. This explanation will account for what followed.
“Between three and four o’clock A. M., just after the lights had disappeared, the sound of horses advancing at a fast gallop was heard approaching the station. The sentinel challenged and was immediately answered with the round Saxon response, ‘Friends.’ It proved to be two of my own company who had been sent back by Capt. Roberts with the information that there was an abundance of water at Dragoon Springs, and instructions to join him with the train without delay. The poor fellows had ridden twenty-eight miles through that terrible storm, and in the heart of a country swarming with hostile and ever vigilant savages. Two days subsequently they had splendid opportunity to test their gallantry and most nobly did they respond to the appeal. In obedience to orders, we set forward before daylight to join Captain Roberts, and reached Dragoon Springs without incident at 3 o ‘clock P. M. A long and fatiguing march of sixty miles had to be made before reaching Apache Pass, where the next water was to be had, and as we were in doubt as to the country, it was again agreed that I should remain at Dragoon Springs until next morning, while Capt. Roberts was to push ahead with his infantry and seven of my company, leaving the train under my charge. At half past five o’clock P. M. he set out, and the strictest vigilance was maintained in camp the whole night. By daylight the next morning we were again in the saddle, and the train duly straightened out for the long and weary march. Had we not been encumbered with wagons, my cavalry could have made the distance easily in seven hours; but we were compelled to keep pace with those indispensable transports of food, ammunition, clothing and medicine. A little before dark, we arrived at Ewell’s Station, fifteen miles west of the pass, and I determined to park the train, as the mules had almost given out and were quite unable to accomplish the remainder of the march without some rest. Just as I had come to this conclusion, we perceived several riders coming toward us with all speed, and they soon proved to be the detachment of my company which had been detailed to act with Capt. Roberts. Two of them were mounted behind two others, and all had evidently ridden hard. Sergeant Mitchell approached, and saluting, said: ‘Capt. Roberts has been attacked in Apache Pass by a very large body of Indians. We fought them for six hours, and finally compelled them to run. Capt. Roberts then directed us to come back through the pass, and report to you with orders to park the train and take every precaution for its safety. He will join you tonight. On leaving the pass, we were pursued by over fifty well armed and mounted Apaches, and we lost three horses, killed under us, and that one – pointing to a splendid gray – is mortally wounded. Sergeant Maynard, now present, has his right arm fractured at the elbow with a rifle ball, and John Teal we believe to be killed, as we saw him cut off by a band of fifteen or twenty savages, while we were unable to render Mm any assistance. ‘
“The wagons were ordered to be parked, every man was supplied with ammunition and posted to the best advantage; proper attention was paid to my wounded sergeant, and the camp arranged in such a manner as to insure a warm reception to a large body of savages. We remained on the qui vive until one o’clock A. M., when to my extreme surprise and sincere gratification, we were joined by John Teal, who was supposed to have been killed. He brought with him his saddle, blanket, saber and pistols, having lost his horse and spurs. His narrative is so full of interest, and so well illustrates a phase of Apache character, that it is worth recording:
“Soon after we left the pass,’ said he, ‘we opened upon a sort of hollow plain or vale, about a mile wide, across which we clashed with speed. I was about two hundred yards in the rear, and presently a body of about fifteen Indians got between me and my companions. I turned my horse’s head southward and coursed along the plain, lengthwise, in the hope of outrunning them, but my horse had been too sorely tested, and could not get away. They came up and commenced firing, one ball passing through the body of my horse, just forward of his hind quarters. It was then about dark, and I immediately dismounted, determined to fight it out to the bitter end. My horse fell, and as I approached him he began to lick my hands. I then swore to kill at least one Apache. Lying down behind the body of my dying horse, I opened fire upon them with my carbine, which, being a breech loader, enabled me to keep up a lively fusilade. This repeated fire seemed to confuse the savages, and instead of advancing with a rush, they commenced to circle around me, firing occasionally in my direction. They knew that I also had a six shooter and a saber, and seemed unwilling to try close quarters. In this way the fight continued for over an hour, when I got a good chance at a prominent Indian and slipped a carbine ball into his heart. He must have been a man of some note, because soon after that they seemed to get away from me, and I could hear their voices, growing fainter in the distance. I thought this a good time to make tracks, and divesting myself of my spurs; I took the saddle, bridle and blanket from my dead horse and started for camp. I have walked eight miles since then. ‘
“It is needless to add how gratified I was to receive this brave and loyal soldier again, and find him free from wound or scar. We subsequently learned that the man he shot was no less an individual than the celebrated Mangus Colorado, but, I regret to add, the rascal survived his wound to cause us more trouble.”
“About an hour after Teal had come in; I was joined by Capt. Roberts with thirty men, and then got a full description of the fight. I omitted to mention that two twelve pounder mountain howitzers were with our little force, and to these guns the victory is probably attributable. It seems that about one hundred and thirty or forty miners had located themselves at the Pino Alto gold mines, or the same mines mentioned in a former portion of this work, as the scene where Mr. Hay and his family were attacked and their cattle stolen by the Apaches, and also where Delgadito got badly scored by Wells. This was the great stronghold of Mangus and his band, and finding himself unable to dislodge the unwelcome intruders without help, he had dispatched messengers to Cheis, the principal warrior of the Chiricahua Apaches, to assist him in expelling the miners. Cheis was too much occupied by the advancing column of American troops to give heed to his call, and failed to attend. Such want of faith was inexplicable to Mangus, who knew nothing of our approach, and, at the head of two hundred warriors, he visited Cheis to inquire the reason for his apparent defection from the Apache cause. In reply Cheis took Mangus to the top of the Chiricahua and showed him the dust made by our advance guard, and told him that it was his first duty to defend himself, and that if Mangus would join in the affair, they could whip the ‘white eyes’ and make themselves masters of the spoil. This arrangement was immediately agreed to by Mangus, and their united forces, amounting to nearly seven hundred warriors, so disposed as to take Roberts by surprise and insure his defeat. But ‘the best laid plans of man and mice gang aft aglee’ and these finely fixed schemes were doomed to be terribly overthrown.
“Roberts, entirely unsuspecting any attack, entered the pass with the ordinary precautions. He had penetrated two-thirds of the way, when from both sides of that battlemented gorge a fearful rain of fire and lead was poured upon his troops within a range of from thirty to eighty yards. On either hand the rocks afforded natural and almost unassailable defenses. Every tree concealed an armed warrior, and each warrior boasted his rifle, six shooter and knife. A better armed host could scarcely be imagined. From behind every species of shelter came the angry and hissing missiles, and not a soul to be seen. Quickly, vigorously, and bravely did his men respond, but to what effect? They were expending ammunition to no purpose; their foes were invisible; there was no way to escalade those impregnable natural fortresses; the howitzers were useless, and the men doubtful how to attack the foe. In such strait, Roberts determined to fall back, reform and renew the contest. The orders were given and obeyed with perfect discipline. R caching the entrance to the pass, the troops were reorganized, skirmishers were thrown out over the hills so as to command the road; the howitzers were loaded, and belched forth their shells wherever found necessary. In this manner the troops again marched forward. Water was indispensable for the continuance of life. Unless they could reach the springs, they must perish. A march of forty miles under an Arizona sun, and over wide alkaline plains, with their blinding dust and thirst provoking effects, had already been effected, and it would be impossible to march back again without serious loss of life, and untold suffering, without taking into account the seeming disgrace of being defeated by seven times their force of Apaches. What would it avail those brave men to know that the Indians were as well armed as they; that they possessed all the advantages; that they outnumbered them seven to one, when the outside and carping world would be so ready to taunt them with defeat, and adduce so many specious reasons why they should have annihilated the savages?
“Forward, steadily forward, under a continuous and galling fire did those gallant companies advance until they reached the old stationhouse in the pass, about six hundred yards from the springs. The house was built of stone, and afforded ample shelter; but still they had no water, and eighteen hours, with a march of forty miles, including six hours of sharp fighting, had been passed without a drop. Men and officers were faint, worn out with fatigue, want of sleep, and intense privation and excitement; still Roberts urged them on and led the way. His person was always the most exposed; his voice ever cheering and encouraging. Immediately commanding the springs are two hills, both high and difficult of ascent. One is to the east, and the other overlooks them from the south. On these heights the Apaches had built rude but efficient breastworks by piling the rocks one upon another so as to form crenelle holes between the interstices. From these fortifications they kept up a rapid and scathing fire, which could not be returned with effect by musketry from three to four hundred feet below. The howitzers were got into position, but one of them was so badly managed that the gunners were brought immediately under the fire from the hills without being able to make even a decent response. In a few moments it was overturned by some unaccountable piece of stupidity, and the’ artillerists driven off by the sharp fire of the savages. At this juncture, Sergeant Mitchell with his six associates of my company made a rush to bring off the howitzer and place it in a better position. Upon reaching the gun, they determined not to turn it downhill, but up, so as to keep their fronts to the fire. While performing this gallant act, they were assailed with a storm of balls, but escaped untouched; after having righted the gun, they brought it away, and placed it in a position best calculated to perform effective service. So soon as this feat had been happily accomplished, the exact range was obtained, and shell after shell hurled upon the hills, bursting just when they should. The Apaches, wholly unused to such formidable engines, precipitately abandoned their rock works and fled in all directions. It was nearly night. To remain under those death dealing heights during the night when campfires would afford the enemy the best kind of advantage, was not true policy, and Capt. Roberts ordered each man to take a drink from the precious and hardly earned springs, and fill his canteen, after which the troops retired within the shelter afforded by the stone stationhouse, the proper guards and pickets being posted.
“In this fight Roberts had two men killed and three wounded, and I afterwards learned from a prominent Apache who was present in the engagement, that sixty-three warriors were killed outright by the shells, while only three perished from musketry fire. He added: ‘ We would have done well enough if you had not fired wagons at us.’ The howitzers, being on wheels, were deemed a species of wagon by the Apaches, wholly inexperienced in that sort of warfare.
“Captain Roberts suffered his men to recruit their wasted energies with supper, and then, taking one half his company, the remainder being left under command of Lieut. Thompson, marched back to Ewell’s Station, fifteen miles, to assure the safety of the train under my command, and escort it through the pass. As before stated, he reached my camp a little after two o’clock A. M., where the men rested until five, when the march toward the pass was resumed. Several alarms were given before his arrival, and we heard the Apaches careering around us, but they made no attack, and kept out of sight. At five o’clock, A. M., the train was straightened out with half my effective cavalry force three hundred yards in the advance and the other half about as far in the rear, while the wagons were flanked on either side by the infantry. In this order we entered that most formidable of gorges, when the bugles blew a halt. A considerable body of the infantry was then thrown out on either side as skirmishers, with a small reserve as the rallying point, while the cavalry were ordered to guard the train, and make occasional dashes into the side canyons. ‘Up hill and down dale’ went the skirmishers’, plunging into dark and forbidding defiles, and climbing steep, rocky, and difficult acclivities, while the cavalry made frequent sorties from the main body to the distance of several hundred yards. Being without a subaltern, Gen. Carleton had assigned Lieut. Muller, of the First Cavalry California Volunteers, to service with my command. This officer soon after gave sufficient proof of his gallantry and zeal, for which I now gratefully return thanks.
“In this manner we progressed through that great stronghold of the Apaches and dangerous defile, until we joined the detachment under Lieut. Thompson, at the stone stationhouse, where we quartered for the remainder of that day. Let it be borne in mind that Capt. Roberts’ company of California Infantry had marched forty miles without food or water, had fought for six hours with desperation against six times their numbers of splendidly armed Apaches, ensconced behind their own natural ramparts, and with every possible advantage in their favor; had driven that force before them; occupied their defiles; taken their strongholds, and after only one draught of water, and a hasty meal, had made another march of thirty miles, almost absolutely without rest. I doubt much if any record exists to show where infantry had made a march of seventy miles, fought one terrible battle of six hours’ duration, and achieved a decided victory under such circumstances.
“The shrill fife, the rattling drum and the mellow bugles sounded the reveille before dawn, of the next day. The campfires were soon throwing up their lively jets of flame and smoke, while the grateful odors of frying bacon and browning flapjacks saluted the appreciative nostrils of the hungry troops. But we had no water, and without water we could have no coffee, that most coveted of all rations. There was reason to believe that the Apaches intended to put our metal to another trial. They had again occupied the heights above the springs, and also the water courses, which were thickly sheltered by trees and willow underbrush. Roberts again made preparations to dislodge the savages, and ordered his howitzers into the most favorable positions. Just then I saluted him, and said, ‘Captain, you have done your share of this fight; I now respectfully ask for my chance. If you will throw your shells on the heights above the springs, I will charge the latter with my men, and clean out the Apaches in a very few moments. I certainly think this concession due me.’
“Roberts reflected for a few moments, and replied – ‘I am truly sorry that your wish cannot be granted. Yours is the only cavalry I have, and their safety is indispensable to ours. “We are going to the San Simon River, where I am ordered to establish a depot and await the arrival of other troops with supplies, and you will have enough to do in your proper turn. I cannot, under the circumstances, grant your request. ‘
“To this I replied: ‘Your objections appear cogent; but I cannot perceive why all these things cannot be accomplished and still permit my men, who are burning with anxiety, to charge those springs and disperse that wretched horde of savages. They are already cowed, and will immediately flee before a vigorous assault. ‘
“Capt. Roberts replied: ‘You have had my answer, Captain, and it should be enough. I do not intend to jeopardize my own men, but will shell the heights and springs, and effect a bloodless victory, in so far as we are concerned. ‘
”After this rebuff, I could make no further personal appeal, but instructed Lieut. Muller to beseech Capt. Roberts, and, if possible, induce him to change his mind. Muller argued for half an hour, until Roberts told him either to obey or be placed under arrest. This ended the colloquy. The howitzers then opened fire – the shells burst splendidly, large numbers of Apaches were observed to decamp from the heights in the most hurried manner; the springs also underwent a similar cleaning, and in less than twenty minutes the troops were permitted to advance and fill their canteens, while my cavalry, without waiting further orders, made a rush after the retreating savages until the rapid rise and terribly broken nature of the ground checked their career. The hillsides were covered with fleeing Apaches, who seemed imbued with supernatural powers of locomotion. Upwards they sped with the celerity of Alpine goats, until they disappeared behind the crests of tall mountains and rugged hills. In peace and quiet, we partook of the precious fountain. Our horses and mules, which had not tasted water for forty-eight hours, and were nearly famished from so dusty a road and so long a journey under the hottest of suns, drank as if they never would be satisfied. An hour later we moved through the pass, entered upon the wide plain which separates it from the San Simon river, and reached our camp on that creek, without further trouble, about four o’clock P. M.”
The use of artillery in this battle was a surprise to the Indians. Their position was well chosen and impregnable as against small arms, and they certainly would have annihilated the Americans had it not been for the howitzers. After this fight Mangus Colorado returned with the remnants of his force to the Pino Alto country, carrying with him the bullet in his body which had been fired by Sergeant Teal. This chance shot caused the Apaches to abandon their pursuit, diverting their attention from Teal to the succor of Mangus. He was conveyed to Janos, in Chihuahua, where he received the care and attention of a Mexican physician who happened to be at that place at the time. It was a case of surgery under difficult conditions for the doctor was told that if the patient survived, he would be safe, but if the patient died, the doctor and all the inhabitants of the village would be sent to join Mangus in the spirit land. The ball was extracted, Mangus recovered, and the doctor and the village saved.
Notes About Book:
Source: History Of Arizona Volume 2, By Thomas Edwin Farish, 1915, Printed and Published by Direction of the Second Legislature of the State of Arizona, A. D.
Notes about Online Publication: This manuscript has been ocr’d and heavily edited. Many of the Native American words have been reproduced as clearly as online publication will allow us, but not all are exactly the way they were in the original work. The structure of this manuscript has been changed to allow better online presentation.